Also known as liver inflammation

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection or liver damage. Short-term (acute) hepatitis lasts less than six months, causes few if any, symptoms, and resolves on its own. Long-term (chronic) hepatitis lasts six months or longer. Chronic hepatitis can lead to serious and even life-threatening complications, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure. There are effective vaccines for two of the viral forms: hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Key Terms

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Is hepatitis contagious?

    Five viruses can cause hepatitis: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), hepatitis E virus (HEV). Some forms are transmitted by contaminated food, water, and stool. Others are primarily transmitted by blood or bodily fluids. Preventative measures include washing your hands, using condoms, avoiding shared needles, and vaccination.

  • How is hepatitis spread?

    Hepatitis A and E mainly spread through contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B spreads through blood and bodily fluids and is spread during sex, needle sharing, and from a pregnant woman to her baby. Hepatitis C mostly spreads through blood. Hepatitis D also spreads through blood and body fluids and only infects those already infected with Hepatitis B.

  • How do you get hepatitis?

    The causes can be broadly categorized as infectious, metabolic, or autoimmune. Viral hepatitis, especially hepatitis B and C, is the most common form. There is also autoimmune hepatitis that may be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors and toxic hepatitis caused by excessive alcohol use, toxic chemicals, or drugs.

  • Which hepatitis is the worst?

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are the most common viral causes of chronic hepatitis and liver damage. Hepatitis B is particularly dangerous for infants. Approximately 90% of infants with HBV develop chronic infections. There is no cure for HBV, but there is a vaccine to prevent it.

  • Can hepatitis be cured?

    Viral infections often clear on their own. If the condition becomes chronic, there is no cure for Hepatitis B. Medications, especially direct-acting antivirals, are able to cure hepatitis C in most cases, yet may be cost prohibitive to many people. Hepatitis A or E resolve on their own and do not result in chronic illness.

Page Sources
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  1. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. What is viral hepatitis? Updated May 2017.

  2. National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women. Updated October 3, 2019.